中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四 中国生态本底:海洋生态系统

弘毅生态农业2019-11-13 07:36:01


1.2海洋,这蓝色的生命之源

1.2Blue ocean, the origin of life

 

生命起源于海洋。

Life originated from the ocean.

 

从太空望去,地球是一个美丽的蓝色星球。这美丽的蓝色就是海洋。中国拥有近300万平方公里的海洋面积,在建设美丽中国的过程中,中国也非常重视自己的海洋生态。那么中国的海洋生态是什么样的呢?

Seen from space, the earth is a beautiful blue planet and that blueness is the ocean. China has an ocean area of nearly 3 million square kilometers. In the process of constructing a beautiful China, therefore, great importance is naturally attached to marine ecology. So what is China’s marine ecosystem like?

 

1.2.1渤海

1.2.1 Bohai Sea

 

渤海是深入中国大陆的一个内海,面积约8万平方公里。渤海中动植物种类丰富[1],文蛤、褶壮蛎、中国对虾等生物量大,因此,渤海是优良的渔场。

The Bohai Sea is an inland sea burrowing its way into the Chinese mainland with an area of about 80,000 square kilometers. It is rich in animal and plant species, with a great biomass of meretrix, ostrea plicatula and penaeus chinensis. As a result, it has become an excellent fishing ground.

 

1.2.2黄海

1.2.2 Yellow Sea

 

黄海是一个半封闭的海,面积38万平方公里。黄海处于北温带,来自寒带、亚寒带、热带和亚热带的生物种群,与本地土生种群汇集在一起,构成了黄海独特的海洋生物区系[2]

The Yellow Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with an area of 380,000 square kilometers lying in the North Temperate Zone. The Biotic population from the frigid zone, the subpolar zone, the tropics, and subtropics, together with local biotic population, form a unique marine biota.

 

1.2.3东海

1.2.3 East China Sea

 

东海面积约为77万平方公里,是中国岛屿最多的海。海底平坦,生物量高[3],分布着许多良好渔场,盛产大黄鱼、小黄鱼、带鱼、墨鱼等。其中,舟山群岛附近的渔场被称为中国海洋鱼类的宝库。

With an area of about 770,000 square kilometers, the East China Sea embraces the most numerous islands in China. With flat seabed and high biomass, it offers many good fishing grounds rich in Larimichthys crocea, L. polyactis, hairtail and cuttlefish, etc. The fishing grounds around the Zhoushan Archipelago are called the treasure house of Chinese marine fish.

 

1.2.4南海

1.2.4 South China Sea

 

南海是中国最大的海,面积350万平方公里。除大陆架区外,有面积约占30%的深海,平均水深1400米。南海的地理条件丰富,生物类型也多种多样[4]。因为地处热带,适合珊瑚繁殖,所以珊瑚礁鱼类和热带大洋性鱼类是南海的一个特点;此外,南海没有占绝对优势的种类,也是南海生态系统的特点。

The South China Sea is China’s largest sea, covering an area of 3.5 million square kilometers. In addition to the continental shelf area, it prides itself on deep-sea area accounting for 30% of the entire sea with an average depth of 1,400 meters. The South China Sea abounds in geographical conditions and varied biological types. Because of its tropical climate, it is suitable for the propagation of coral, so coral fish and tropical oceanic fish are plentiful there. However, one special feature of the ecosystem is that there is no dominant fish species.

 

人类虽然不生活在海洋里,但海洋为人类提供丰富的食物,是有很好开发前景的营养来源。除此之外,海洋还有重要的海运交通功能,是大宗物流运输的首选;海底和大陆架中还储存了大量的石油、可燃冰等能源。

Although humans do not live in the ocean, it provides abundant food for them. It is a good source for exploitation of nutrients. In addition, the ocean is a vital means of transportation, making it a preferred choice for bulk cargo transportation. On the seabed and in the continental shelf area are found large deposits of energy sources such as oil and flammable ice (also known as methane ice).

 

更重要的是,海洋是陆地水分的来源。海水经过蒸发,以水蒸气的方式将水分输送给陆地生态,而矿物质和人类活动排放的污染物则留在海洋里。因此,海洋还承担着为经济活动代谢废物的任务。尽管海洋的环境容量十分巨大,但不当的经济活动已经导致海洋污染。如果有一天海洋生态没有能力代谢废物了,地球就告急了。

More importantly, the ocean is a source of water. Through evaporation, water is transmitted to terrestrial ecosystems in the form of vapor while retaining minerals and pollutants from human activities. Therefore, the ocean also has the function of metabolizing waste from economic activities. Although the capacity of accommodation of the marine environment is enormous, inappropriate economic activities have already resulted in marine pollution. If one day the ocean ecology can no longer metabolize waste efficiently, then the earth will be in jeopardy.



[1]渤海已记录的浮游植物有120多种,浮游动物约有100多种,底栖植物100多种,底栖动物140多种。此外,游泳动物有120多种,以鱼类为主,也有少数虾类、蟹类、头足类及海兽。

5 The Bohai Sea has recorded over 120 kinds of phytoplankton, over 100 kinds of zooplankton, over 100 kinds of phytobenthos, and over 140 kinds of zoobenthos. Besides, there are more than 120 kinds of nekton, mainly fish, as well as shrimp, crabs, cephalopods and marine mammals.

[2]黄海已记录的浮游植物有368种,浮游动物130种,底栖动物约200多种。北部已发现游泳生物219种,南部有225种,包括15种鲸类,3种鳍脚类,4种海龟。

6 The Yellow Sea has recorded 368 kinds of phytoplankton, 130 kinds of zooplankton, over 200 kinds of Zoobenthos. In the north, 219 kinds of Nekton have been discovered, and in the south,  225 kinds, including 15 kinds of whales, 3 kinds of pinniped and 4 kinds of turtle.

[3]东海沿岸流和台湾暖流是东海浅水区域的两支主要海流。浮游植物种类在长江口附近有64种,浙江沿岸有261种。浮游动物在长江口附近有81种,浙江沿岸有223种。底栖生物已记录342种。游泳生物在长江口及浅海区有鱼类167种,浙江浅海区有203种。

7 The South China Sea Coastal Current and the kuroshio are the two main ocean currents of  warm shallow waters of the East China Sea. Phytoplankton species near the Yangtze River Estuary amount to 64, with 261 near the coastal waters of Zhejiang. Zooplankton species near the Yangtze River Estuary total 81, with 223 near the coastal waters of Zhejiang. Benthos so far recorded reach 342 kinds. Nekton species near the Yangtze River Estuary and the nearby shallow watersas well as in Zhejiang shallow waters are as numerous as 167 and 203 respectively.

[4] 浮游植物在南海各不同沿海区有104260种左右,浮游动物380种,底栖生物2861种,头足类58种,其中常见经济种25种。

[4] Phytoplankton in various coastal areas around the South China Sea varies from 104 to 260 species while Zooplankton species amount to 380. Benthos species and cephalopoda species are  2,861 and 58 respectively, among which the common species of economic value is 25.


本书由北京语言大学出版社,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明